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Nanosurf's team of application scientists is always working on creating new interesting measurements for the benefit of the users of Nanosurf atomic force microscopes. The application notes we publish are written and edited by our global team of AFM Experts to provide you with example results in an easy to ready format and enough theoretical context to help novice users understand more complex measurement methods.


Advanced Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM)

Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is one of the essential electrical modes in scanning probe microscopy. It is measuring a fundamental physical property of materials – a surface potential. Unlike many other modes, where the extraction of quantitative data is subject to various, often complex calibration routines, quantification of a KPFM measurement is rather straightforward – difference between the surface potentials of a scanning probe and the sample is measured in volts. This voltage is often called a contact potential difference (CPD), and in case of metals, it is equal to the difference in work functions between the tip and the sample materials.

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